«Social Strengthening Efforts to Eradicate Poverty and Hunger Affairs Dialogues at the Economic and Social Council asdf United Nations Department of ...»
to Eradicate Poverty
Dialogues at the Economic and Social Council
Department of Economic and Social Affairs
Office for ECOSOC Support and Coordination
to Eradicate Poverty
Dialogues at the
Economic and Social Council
New York, 2007
United Nations Publications
Sales No. E.07.II.A.10
Copyright © United Nations 2007 All rights reserved UN Photos/ John Isaac/ Oddbjorn Monsen/ Kay Muldoon/ Evan Schneider/ B Wolff
For further information please contact:
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs.
Office for ECOSOC Support and Coordination, 1 United Nations Plaza, Room DC1-1428, New York, N.Y. 10017, USA.
The views expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs.
iii DESA The Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat is a vital interface between global policies in the economic, social and environmental
spheres and national action. The Department works in three main interlinked areas:
(i) it compiles, generates and analyses a wide range of economic, social and environmental data and information on which States Members of the United Nations draw to review common problems and to take stock of policy options; (ii) it facilitates the negotiations of Member States in many intergovernmental bodies on joint courses of action to address ongoing or emerging global challenges; and (iii) it advises interested Governments on the ways and means of translating policy frameworks developed in United Nations conferences and summits into programmes at the country level and, through technical assistance, helps build national capabilities.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTSThis book has been prepared by the Office for ECOSOC Support and Coordination, Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations. The SecretaryGeneral’s report to the Annual Ministerial Review of the High-level Segment of the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) on “Strengthening efforts to eradicate poverty and hunger, including through the global partnership for development” and the Ministerial Declaration of the ECOSOC High-level Segment are attached as annexes. The book also draws upon the debates and outcomes of the Council’s session as well as on a series of roundtables organized in preparation for the session.
The roundtables and panels were sponsored by the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), International Labour Organization (ILO), International Monetary Fund (IMF), United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (ECA), United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN-Habitat), UN Office of the High Representative for the Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries and Small Island Developing States (UN-OHRLLS), Office of the Special Adviser on Africa (OSAA), International Land Coalition (ILC), Office of the Special Adviser on Gender Issues and Advancement of Women/DESA, International Organization for Migration (IOM), United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), United Nations Forum on Forests (UNFF), Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), United Nations World Food Programme (WFP), World Bank, and the World Trade Organization (WTO).
The Renewal of the Economic and Social Council and its Challenges 11 H.E. Mr. Dalius Čekuolis President of the Economic and Social Council United Nations The General Assembly and the Economic and Social Council: Mechanisms to Implement and Promote Action on the Development Agenda 13 H.E. Sheikha Haya Rashed Al Khalifa President of the General Assembly United Nations ECOSOC and the National Efforts to Achieve the Millennium Development Goals 16 H.E. Mrs. Micheline Calmy-Rey President of the Swiss Confederation Head of the Federal Department of Foreign Affairs Sustain Economic Growth: The Key Factor to fight Poverty and Hunger 19 H.E. Mr. Gediminas Kirkilas Prime Minister of Lithuania
Partnerships among Rural Development Stakeholders in Madagascar 148 Mr. Jean Gabriel Randrianarison Secretary-General Ministry of Economics, Planning and the Private Sector of Madagascar
Overcoming Poverty through Productive Employment and Decent Work for Income Generation in Least Developed Countries 202 International Labour Organization (ILO) and the United Nations Office of the High Representative for the Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries and Small Island Developing States (OHRLLS) Sustaining Pro-Poor Generation of Wealth, Food Security and Peace through Sustainable Forest Management: Global Commitments and Regional Innovations 207 United Nations Forum on Forests (UNFF) and the Office of the Special Adviser on Africa (OSAA)
Women’s Participation in Poverty Alleviation and sustained Economic Growth, including through the Initiatives of Migrant Women 225 International Organization for Migration (IOM), United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), and the Office of the Special Adviser on Gender Issues (OSAGI)
AfDB African Development Bank AGR/AGRA African Green Revolution ADLI Agricultural Development Led Industrialization AMR Annual Ministerial Review AU African Union BBC British Broadcasting Corporation BWIs Bretton Woods Institutions CAADP Comprehensive Africa Agricultural Development Programme CAN Andean Community CAP Common Agricultural Policy CARICOM Caribbean Community CBT Community Based Training CDB Caribbean Development Bank CDCF Cambodia Development Cooperation Forum CDOs Collateralised Debt Obligations CDP Committee for Development Policy CEB United Nations Chief Executives Board CEDAW United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women CEO Chief Executive Officer CLOs Collateralised Loan Obligations CMDGs Cambodia Millennium Development Goals COMIFAC Central African Forestry Commission CONGO Conference of NGOs CPA Country Poverty Assessment CRPC Chronic Poverty Research Centre CSME Caribbean Single Market and Economy CSOs Civil Society Organizations CTDL Currency Transaction Development Levy DAC Development Assistance Committee DCF Development Cooperation Forum DESA Department of Economic and Social Affairs DWCPs Decent Work Country Programmes EAC East African Community ECA Economic Commission for Africa ECB European Central Bank ECE Economic Commission for Europe ECLAC Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean ECOSOC Economic and Social Council ECOWAS Economic Commission of West African States EDP External Development Partners EDI EFA Development Index EFA Education for All ENSA National Strategy for Food Security EP Essential Package EPZs Export Processing Zones ESCAP Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific xii Glossary of Acronyms
In its 2007 High-level Segment held in Geneva from 2-5 July 2007, the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) convened its first Annual Ministerial Review (AMR) and launched the Development Cooperation Forum (DCF), as mandated by the 2005 World Summit. The AMR takes stock of progress to accelerate global efforts to achieve the internationally-agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the overarching target of halving extreme poverty by 2015 – the DCF aims to strengthen international development cooperation towards achieving these goals.
The survey of progress so far, as shown in the 2007 MDG Report, shows that seven years after the Millennium Summit, many countries are still struggling to achieve the MDGs.
However, even though some countries are not on track to reach these goals by 2015, others have made significant progress in reducing extreme poverty and, on balance, the results are encouraging.
The Ministerial Declaration adopted at the end of the High-level Segment has contributed to the revival of ECOSOC by sending a message that the international community is united in addressing the obstacles that stand in the way of achieving the goal of halving poverty and hunger by 2015. Member States clearly recognized the importance of new and emerging developments, such as climate change, and their impact on sustainable development overall and the achievement of the MDGs in particular, especially for the most vulnerable countries. The Council affirmed that responses to climate change should be coordinated with social and economic development in an integrated manner. A further opportunity to do this will present itself when the Council will address, at its 2008 Highlevel Segment, “Implementing the internationally-agreed goals and commitments in regard to sustainable development.” Over the past years, ECOSOC has demonstrated its ability to bring crucial development issues to the forefront of the international agenda, and to carry out its role as the central forum for addressing economic and social issues. The Council brings together all development partners to set norms and guidelines, link policy and operations, and give political impetus to vital development efforts. The 2007 High-level Segment also sought to widen its partnerships with a range of stakeholders. In addition to leaders and policymakers from Member States, UN agencies, international organizations, regional institutions and NGOs, including academia, the Council also benefited from the presence of a number of private sector companies which participated in an Innovation Fair.
The present publication brings to a broader audience the rich materials – statements, issues papers, summaries of high-level roundtables, dialogues and other discussions – gathered at the 2007 High-level Segment of ECOSOC and its preparatory meetings. It is intended to serve as a resource and a vehicle to assess the advancement of the MDGs. It is hoped that Member States and their national, regional and international partners will use this publication to reflect on how to put in place many of the recommendations that
2 Prefaceemerged from the debate in the Council and that are contained in this book. It is time to realize the goals that the international community has set for itself.
The 2007 substantive session of the Economic and Social Council will be remembered as a turning point in its reform. By implementing the vision of the 2005 World Summit, the session opened new avenues for the work of the Council. The first Annual Ministerial Review, with a special focus on the eradication of poverty and hunger and the global partnership for development and the launch of the Development Cooperation Forum, could not have come at a more opportune juncture. As the Secretary-General declared in his opening remarks to the Council, “we stand at the mid-point of the race to achieve the Millennium Development Goals. A strong and sustained effort now can mean the difference between the success and failure of our grand endeavour. Needless to say, millions of lives quite literally hang in the balance.” These words represent in the starkest terms the urgency of the work of the Council.
In outlining the report of the Secretary-General to the Council and reflecting on the MDG Report 2007, the Under-Secretary-General for Economic and Social Affairs gave a mixed picture of the global situation. The goal of reducing poverty by half appears likely to be met in almost all regions, except sub-Saharan Africa. Even there, the earlier relentless increase in the number of poor appears to have been halted and the proportion of poor is declining, but so far, not rapidly enough. Progress in reducing hunger is less easy to identify and no recent comprehensive data exist. But hunger clearly remains a scourge in several areas, particularly where there is unrest.
Poverty, as a phenomenon and as a challenge, involves much more than income levels.
There is forward movement in non-income dimensions of poverty, such as access to education and health. Importantly, data suggest that progress in such areas has accelerated since 2000 and that it embraces many of the countries where these challenges are greatest. Nevertheless, the progress to date has been uneven across and within countries and, in many cases, insufficient to achieve the agreed goals. This is especially the case where there is internal conflict and unrest impeding or reversing development.
Such countries must increase their efforts to end these conflicts. Where this requires external support, the international community must unite in its efforts to achieve peace and stability – and to sustain it.
In addition to conflict, a number of other emerging challenges are placing serious constraints on the efforts to realize the internationally agreed development goals, including the MDGs, threatening to undo decades of development efforts. Major challenges include climate change, desertification and disease exacerbated by AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis. These directly impact national and international endeavours for the eradication of poverty and hunger, prevent people from realizing their potential and contributing to the progress of their societies.
Unfortunately, there are no large-scale “quick impact initiatives” that would rapidly reverse these negative trends of past decades. In the specific case of climate change, the additional information that has become available over the past year underlines the seriousness of the threat and the urgency to forge a global response. All countries should
4 Introductioncontribute positively to the multilateral solution necessary to address this global challenge effectively.
Overall, the strategy for achieving the internationally agreed development goals, including the MDGs, is working, although not on the scale required. The strategy must be improved and strengthened. The aim should be to accelerate implementation in a way that enables all segments of the world’s population to share in the success.